27 May 2015

The Danger of Tar and Brush

I came across an article the other day which got me thinking. Richard Overy, a Professor of History at the University of Exeter wrote an article for History Today. He questioned the indiscriminate use of the word "Nazi" to describe "anything to do with German institutions or behaviour in the years of the dictatorship between 1933 and 1945" - for example, "Nazi Army", "Nazi Luftwaffe", "Nazi spies".

Overy pointed out that the term "Nazi" was an abbreviation of the name for a political party - the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP). Certainly there were many notorious organizations that were run under the umbrella of the Nazi party: the paramilitary Schutzstaffel (SS), the state police - Geheimstaatspolizei (Gestapo) and the intelligence organization -Sicherheitsdienst (SD). Horrific things happened under the auspices of the Nazi party - no question.

But not all German institutions were run by the Nazis. The German Army, for example, was not a Nazi organization. The Abwehr was also not run by the Nazi party and actually seems to have been a haven for anti-Nazi officers.

It does however seem that it is easier to tar all Germans with the same paintbrush. Simpler to refer to "Nazi spies" than to delve into the complexities of individual human motivations under a brutal dictatorship.

Was Josef Jakobs a "Nazi spy" or a "German spy". Does it matter? Is it just semantics? Or is it a lesson from the past, bearing a message for the people of today. Truth is... it seems that our tendency to tar all individuals of a certain ilk with the same brush is not a thing of the past.

Are all Afghans Taliban?
Are all Muslims terrorists?
Are all Scots separatists?
Are all Russians communists?
Are all American police officers racist?
Are all Indian men rapists?
Are all priests pedophiles?

Overy's article triggered this musing. He also made the point that indiscriminate use of the term "Nazi" for all things "German" during the 1933-1945 period tends to muddle our historical understanding of what preceded the Nazi regime and what came afterward. In his words: "Sloppy language is nevertheless an enemy to proper historical explanation. It is not mere nit-picking to argue that ‘the Nazi army’ or ‘Nazi industry’ are meaningless terms, but instead a recognition that the popular obsession with everything as ‘Nazi’ fails to advance our understanding of how the dictatorship was possible and how its historical impact on German society can be judged." Which makes me wonder how the history of 9/11 or 7/11 will be written?

22 May 2015

The Interpreter & the Stenographer at the court martial of German Spy, Josef Jakobs

On 4 and 5 August, 1941, German spy Josef Jakobs was brought before a court martial at the Duke of York's Headquarters in Chelsea. The court martial had a panel of "judges" who were high-ranking military officers. It was there job to decide whether Josef was guilty or innocent of the charges brought against him. In addition, there was an Attorney for the Defence (Captain E.V.E. White) and an Attorney for the Prosecution (Major A.A.H. Marlowe). Finally, there was an interpreter (Lieutenant W.J. Thomas, Intelligence Corps) and a stenographer (Quartermaster Sergeant B.A. Balment, Royal Army Ordnance Corps).

Information on these last two individuals is a bit sketchy.

Lt. W.J. Thomas
Badge of the Pioneer Corps
Badge of the Pioneer Corps
In all likelihood, the interpreter was one Lieutenant William James Thomas, service number 7197. Tracing his service number, one finds that William was originally a private in the Royal Sussex Regiment.

In August 1940, William was commissioned as a Lieutenant in the Auxiliary Military Pioneer Corps. The Pioneer Corps was the labour corps of the Army, responsible for light engineering tasks. During World War 2, thousands of enemy aliens (Germans, Austrians, Italians) joined the Pioneer Corps to serve their adopted country. They came to be known as the "King's Most Loyal Enemy Aliens". Given the fact that William served as interpreter at Josef's court martial, he must have been quite fluent in German, probably one of the reasons he was commissioned into the Pioneer Corps.

A year later, on the 21 June, 1941, William was transferred to the Intelligence Corps. Finally, on 18 August, 1943, William resigned his commission as Lieutenant and was re-granted the rank of Lieutenant.

Royal Army Ordnance Corps badge
Royal Army Ordnance Corps badge
Quartermaster Sergeant B.A. Balment
In all likelihood, the stenographer was Bertram Anthony Balment. Born in Croydon in 1908, Bertram, went on to wed Mary Teresa Grannell in 1930.

Bertram was a stenographer in civilian life and ended up serving with the Royal Army Ordnance Corps. He passed away in 1959 at the age of 51.

20 May 2015

Today in 1941 - May 20 - German spy Josef Jakobs provided more information on Karel Richter

Today in 1941, Josef was interrogated in more depth about his association with Karel Richter.

Karel Richter had arrived at Latchmere House on May 15 and, with Josef's help, the Camp 020 officers had managed to break Richter and extract a fair bit of information from him.

On May 20, Lt. Sampson, Lt. Short and 2nd Lt. Winn sat down with Josef and questioned him further about Richter. They wanted to compare Josef's information to Richter's story.

Over the next few weeks, the Camp 020 officers would play Richter and Josef against each other in a "cross-ruff". The purpose of the sessions was for each spy to "trump" the other by revealing incremental bits of information that the Camp 020 officers could then exploit.

18 May 2015

E.V.E. White - The Attorney for the Defence - Court Martial of German Spy Josef Jakobs

On 4 and 5 August, 1941, German spy Josef Jakobs was brought before a court martial at the Duke of York's Headquarters in Chelsea. The court martial had a panel of "judges" who were high-ranking military officers. It was there job to decide whether Josef was guilty or innocent of the charges brought against him. In addition, there was an Attorney for the Defence (Captain E.V.E. White) and an Attorney for the Prosecution (Major A.A.H. Marlowe).

Early Life
Eric Vincent Ewart White born the fall of 1909 in Lewisham, Greater London. Eric was the eldest child of Bertram Ewart White and his wife Avera Emily Vincent. Bertram and Avera were married in the spring of 1909 in Wandsworth and young Eric was born a scant 6 months later. Bertram was a solicitor and was part of a successful legal practice (Reid Sharman & Co). The young couple made their home in Lewisham, London, residing on Adelaide Road in Brockley.

Legal Training
In the early 1930s, Eric received a M.A. from Oxford, Pembroke College. He went on to join the bar of Lincoln's Inn as a barrister-at-law. In 1935, Eric co-wrote a book with Thomas Froude entitle: "The Practice Relating to Debentures; a Handbook of Legal and Practical Knowledge for Directors, Receivers, Secretaries, Accountants and Debenture Holders, with Full Appendix of Forms".

World War II
Leicestershire Yeomanry badge  (From Wikipedia)
Leicestershire Yeomanry badge
(From Wikipedia)
With the outbreak of war, Eric joined the Leicestershire Yeomanry as an officer cadet. He joined one of the Officer Cadet Training Units (OCTU) and learned the skills needed for field artillery. On 19 October, 1940, Eric was commissioned as a 2nd Lieutenant in the 154th (Leicestershire Yeomanry) Field Regiment of the Royal Regiment of Artillery (RA).

Less than a year later, on 9 April, 1941, Eric would attend the funeral of his father. Bertram died in the Homeopathic Hospital in London and left his family the rather healthy sum of £6700. By that point, Bertram and his wife had moved to Kingsdown-Road in Epsom. Just a few weeks later, Eric married Nona Lesley Davidson of Sidmouth, Devonshire. The young couple were married in Honiton, Devon.

In early August, 1941, Eric, then a Captain, was called upon to serve as defence attorney for German spy, Josef Jakobs. Eric gave it his best shot but in the end, the case for the defence was unsuccessful.

Eric's career with the Royal Artillery prospered and by 1942 he was a Temporary Major. In the summer of 1942, word trickled down that Eric's regiment was destined for North Africa. In the early fall of 1942, Eric bid his pregnant wife a tearful goodbye. It was their first child and Eric promised her that he would come home. Eric and his regiment packed their bags, their equipment and headed off to North Africa. In November of that same year, they gave support to the 154th Brigade of the Highland Division. Eric and his regiment may have been involved in one of the battles of El Alamein.

 In January, 1943, the Eric and the 154th were transferred to Persia for several months before returning to North Africa in April. At some point during those early months of 1943, a letter from his wife caught up with Eric announcing that he was the father of a healthy baby boy named David. Eric and his fellow officers raised a few toasts in celebration of the new life. It seems unlikely that Eric was granted leave to go home. As it would turn out, Eric would never see his son.

Over the next few months, Eric served in North Africa, Syria, Palestine and possibly Italy. Unfortunately, on 20 August, 1944, Eric was killed in a road accident in Egypt. He was only 35 years old.

Eric was buried in the Commonwealth War Cemetery at Heliopolis, a suburb of Cairo in Egypt. His family erected a monument to him in Epsom Cemetery, southwest of London, in the same plot wherein his father was buried.
Grave memorial photos for E.V.E. White (from Find-a-Grave - taken by Loz Hennessey)
Grave memorial photos for E.V.E. White (from Find-a-Grave - taken by Loz Hennessey)
Grave memorial photos for E.V.E. White
(from Find-a-Grave - taken by Loz Hennessey)

Commonwealth War Grave Commission - Eric Vincent Ewart White
Find-a-Grave - Bertram Ewart White & Eric Vincent Ewart White
Leicestershire Yeomanry Association
London Gazette

15 May 2015

Today in 1941 - May 15 - German spy Josef Jakobs helps break newly arrived spy Karel Richter

Today in 1941, Josef was groomed by the interrogators at Camp 020 to help break newly arrived spy, Karel Richter.

Karel Richter had landed via parachute in the early morning hours of May 12, near London Colney. Richter promptly hid his equipment and himself for several days and nights. On the evening of May 14, he ventured forth and was quickly detained and questioned by a police constable. With his sketchy English, forged National Registration card (lacking an alien's stamp) in the name of Fred Synder and a Czech passport in the name of Karel Richter, he naturally aroused suspicion. The following morning, MI5 was notified of Richter's capture, and Major C.A. Dixon, the R.S.L.O. officer from Cambridge, delivered Richter to Camp 020.

Richter proved to be rather stubborn and refused to admit anything other than the fact that he was a refugee who had landed by boat several weeks ago. Major Stephens, Lieutenant Sampson and Lieutenant Short handed Richter a photograph of Josef but he denied ever having met the man. Josef was then brought into the room to confront Richter. Josef stated that he recognized Richter and had met him in Hamburg and The Hague during his spy training. A crack appeared in Richter's armour, a weakness that the MI5 officers used to their advantage.

Earlier that same day, Stephens had written a report for the Brigadier O.A. Harker, the Deputy Director General of the Security Service, in which he summarized the case for a Proposed Trial Under the Treachery Act for Josef Jakobs.

The very next day, on May 16, Stephens admitted that,
"apart from information supplied by B2 through source TATE, Richter was technically 'broken' owing (a) to information elicited from Jakobs under report from B.L. [Latchmere House] of 30.4.41, (b) identification by Jakobs and (c) confrontation by Jakobs. Without Jakobs I am doubtful whether the case of Ricther would have been cleared and yet Jakobs is on the selected list for trial under the Treachery Act in the near future."

13 May 2015

A.A.H. Marlowe - The Attorney for the Prosecution - Court Martial of German Spy Josef Jakobs

On 4 and 5 August, 1941, German spy Josef Jakobs was brought before a court martial at the Duke of York's Headquarters in Chelsea. The court martial had a panel of "judges" who were high-ranking military officers. It was there job to decide whether Josef was guilty or innocent of the charges brought against him. In addition, there was an Attorney for the Defence (Captain E.V.E. White) and an Attorney for the Prosecution (Major A.A.H. Marlowe).

Early Life
Anthony Alfred Harmsworth Marlowe was born 25 October, 1904 in Camberwell, London. Marlowe was the youngest child of Thomas Marlowe and his wife Alice Warrender. Thomas was a journalist and editor of the Daily Mail, a position he held from 1899 to 1926.  Thomas chose to give his youngest son the middle names "Alfred Harmsworth" to honour the Daily Mail's founder, Alfred Harmsworth. Marlowe's family was quite well off, with several servants, a necessity given that Thomas and his wife ended up having eight children.

Legal Training
Young Marlowe escaped the ravages of World War I and in the early 1920s attended Marlborough College, a boarding school in Wiltshire. From there, he went on to study at Trinity College, Cambridge. Interested in law from an early age, Marlowe was called to the Bar (Inner Temple) in 1928 and established his own law practice. The following year, he married Patricia Mary Hastings, the daughter of barrister Sir Patrick Hasting. Marlowe and Patricia had several children in the 1930s.

World War II
Anthony Alfred Harmsworth Marlowe  (posted on Ebay)
Anthony Alfred Harmsworth Marlowe
(posted on Ebay)
In 1938, the Munich Crisis shook the confidence of a nation and Marlowe, sensing that war was in the future, joined the Army Officer's Reserve. With the declaration of war, Marlowe received an Emergency Commission into the regular British Army and was assigned to the Judge Advocate General's staff. Marlowe rose through the ranks and finished the war as a Lieutenant Colonel.

On 4 and 5 August, 1941, Major Marlowe served as the Attorney for the Prosecution at the court martial of Josef Jakobs. He would be successful in prosecuting the case.

Political Career
Despite his military service, Marlowe found time and energy to run for office. On 15 November, 1941, three months after Josef's execution, Marlowe was elected as a Conservative Member of Parliament for Brighton, Sussex, a position he held until 1950.

Marlowe wasn't all that impressed with Winston Churchill and they two men butted heads on several occassions. On 29 May, 1945, Marlowe questioned Churchill about the plans to bring Nazi war criminals to justice.
Does not my right hon. Friend think that in relation to the notorious Nazi leaders the tangled machinery of trial is an inappropriate farce? Will he not ensure that they are despatched with the maximum speed; and, pending that desirable event, will he see that they are maintained in prison cells, and not in hotels?" 
Not surprisingly, Marlowe, recently appointed a King's Counsel, would find himself playing a key legal role at several Nazi war crimes trials.

In 1950, with the redrawing of constituencies, Marlowe was elected Conservative MP for Hove, Sussex. At some point, Marlowe and Patricia's marriage ended in divorce. The two went their separate ways and in 1956, Marlowe married divorcée Marion (née Tenant-Park) Slater.

In March 1965, Marlowe suffered a mild heart attack which slowed him down slightly. During the next few months, his health took a turn for the worse and he eventually resigned his seat in June. On 8 September, 1965, Marlowe passed away in Poole, Dorset at the age of 60 years.

London Gazette

08 May 2015

The Court Martial of German Spy Josef Jakobs - The Members of the Court

German spy Josef Jakobs was tried by court martial on 4 and 5 August, 1941 at the Duke of York's Headquarters in Chelsea. The President of the Court Martial, the five Members of the Court and the two waiting Members (if required) would decide his fate.

The Manual of Military Law contained the Rules of Procedure governing the General Court Martial. Officers selected to serve as members of the court could be disqualified for a number of reasons including if they had a personal interest in the case. The members of the court were to be chosen from different corps and four of the officers could not be below the rank of Captain.

The officer convening the Court Martial, in this case, George Mervyn Cornish, Officer Commanding Grenadier Guards, Holding Battalion, chose officers with the assistance of Director of Personal Services, Maj. General C.J. Wallace.

Major General B.T. Wilson C.B., D.S.O.
The first person selected for the court martial was the President. In mid-July, the Director of Personal Services, Major General Charles John Wallace had tried to speed-up the schedule for the proceedings but Lt. Col. William Edward Hinchley-Cooke of MI5 cautioned him that preparations were not complete. Wallace told Hinchley-Cooke that he had a Major General in mind for President, one with a tight schedule and the sooner the court martial could take place, the better. The man who ended up serving as President may have been the man that Wallace had in mind.

Bevil Thomson Wilson was born in Toronto, Canada, on 12 December, 1885, the son of surgeon Alexander Wilson and his wife Mary Louise Rhynold-Barker. The young couple had apparently married in haste on 31 August, 1885, and one might suspect that young Mary Louise traveled to Canada to avoid the scandal associated with their son's untimely arrival.

Despite his Canadian birth, Wilson was raised in Manchester and eventually attended Clifton College near Bristol. Young Wilson was not called to follow in his father's medical footsteps however, choosing rather to accept a commission in the Royal Engineers in 1905 at the age of 20.

Wilson served in India and Egypt prior to World War I and quickly rose through the ranks with the outbreak of war, fighting several campaigns in Gallipoli, France and Italy. Along the way, Wilson was Mentioned in Dispatches for "conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty" and also picked up a Distinguished Service Order (D.S.O.). He ended the war as a Brevet Major serving with the Ministry of Munitions.

In June 1918, Wilson married Florence Erica Starkey with whom he had a son and a daughter. His son, Alexander James Wilson, would follow in his father’s footsteps as a career soldier.

53 Welsh Division - designed by Wilson  (From Jonathan H. Ware's site)
53 Welsh Division - designed by Wilson
(From Jonathan H. Ware's site)
During the interwar period, Wilson spent some time in England before being deployed as a Brigade Commander to the Sudan and India. In 1939 he returned to the U.K and was assigned command of the 53rd (Welsh) Division which was deployed to Northern Ireland. It may have been here that he picked up his nick-name of "Swill-Tubs".

Wilson relinquished command of the Division in July 1941 and retired from the Army a few months later. One of his last military duties was to serve as President at Josef’s court martial.

The members of Josef’s court martial panel included four officers and two waiting members.

Brigadier F.A.M. Browning D.S.O.
F.A.M. Browning  (From Wikipedia)
F.A.M. Browning
(From Wikipedia)
Frederick Arthur Montague Browning was born 20 December, 1896, in Kensington, London, the son of wine merchant Frederick Henry Browning and his wife Nancy Alt.

After studying at Eton College, Browning was nominated for admission to the Royal Military College Sandhurst and was accepted on 27 December, 1914. After graduating in June 1915, Browning was commissioned as an officer in the Grenadier Guards and sent to France in October of that year.

As a young Lieutenant, Browning, or "Boy" as he was known,  was awarded the Distinguished Service Order and the French Croix de Guerre. In late March 1918, the Germans launched a massive offensive (Kaiserschlacht) near Amiens and Browning’s company played an active role in repulsing the German advance. It was also at Amiens that Josef Jakobs was wounded in early April while participating in the German offensive. Neither Josef nor Browning, fighting on opposite sides during the Amiens attack, could know that they would face each other again in 1941.

After the war, Browning served in various capacities with the Grenadier Guards and even served as Adjutant at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. Despite his busy work life, Browning found time to train for, and compete in, the 1928 Winter Olympics as a member of England's five-man bobsleigh team (they finished 10th).

In 1931, Browning read author Daphne duMaurier’s book, The Loving Spirit, and was so impressed by her depictions of the Cornish coastline, that he visited the area himself. On a return visit the following year, he invited duMaurier onto his boat and after a short romance, the two were married in July 1932. Browning and DuMaurier had three children over the next eight years.

While his wife was busy writing books and caring for the children, Browning found himself promoted to Lieutenant Colonel in 1936, to full Colonel in 1939 and to Brigadier in 1940. In 1941, he was assigned command of the 24th (Guards) Independent Brigade Group in 1941, whose mission it was to defend London from an attack from the south. In October of 1941, Browning was promoted to Major General and appointed Commander Parachute Troops and Airborne Troops.

Colonel E.W.S. Balfour, D.S.O., O.B.E., M.C.
Edward William Sturgis Balfour was born 6 December, 1884, in London. Despite his English birth, Balfour was actually of rugged Scottish stock, being the 9th Balfour of Balbirnie, an estate in Fife acquired by the Balfour family in 1640. Balfour was the son of Edward Balfour and his wife, Isabella Weyman Hooper, a native of Boston, Massachusetts.

5th Dragoon Guards (cap badge)  (From British Empire website)
5th Dragoon Guards (cap badge)
(From British Empire website)
With several generations of military officers in his ancestry, it was a given that Balfour would also enter the military. During World War I he served as an officer in the 5th (Prince Charlotte of Wales’s) Dragoon Guards and quickly earned a Distinguished Service Order.

In October 1914, Balfour's older brother, Robert Frederick Balfour, a Captain in the Scots Guards, was killed in action in Belgium.

A couple of months later, Balfour married the distinguished, and accomplished, Lady Ruth Balfour with whom he had four children. Lady Ruth was one of the first women to attend Cambridge University where she studied medicine. She worked as a doctor during much of the First World War. In 1916, the couple welcomed a young daughter into their lives.

On 21 March, 1918, Balfour's younger brother, Captain John Balfour M.C. of the Scots Guards was killed in action near Arras, probably as a result of the German spring offensive of which Josef had been a part.

After the war, Balfour and his wife had three more children, two sons and a daughter. Both of their sons joined the army and, along with their father, earned the Military Cross. Their eldest son, Peter Edward Gerald Balfour, would go on to join the Scots Guards during World War II. Their youngest, John Charles Balfour, joined the Royal Artillery and saw action in North Africa and Normandy. Both would survive the war.

Balfour, himself, retired from the army in the 1930s but with the declaration of war in 1939, was remobilized and given command of the Scots Guards.

Lieutenant Colonel H.H. Cripps, D.S.O.
Royal Fusiliers Badge  (From Wikipedia)
Royal Fusiliers Badge
(From Wikipedia)
Henry Harrison Cripps was born on 20 June, 1887, in London, the son of Lt. Col. William Harrison Cripps and his wife Blanche Potter.

Cripps was educated at Marlborough College and attended the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. Commissioned as a Second Lieutenant in the Royal Fusiliers in 1907, Cripps was promoted rapidly through the ranks.

Early in World War I, Cripps was promoted to Captain and served in the Balkans and Gallipoli. He was wounded in Gallipoli and received a Distinguished Service Order before continuing to fight in France.

In April 1918, Cripps married Hilda Barbour Pring in Belfast, Ireland. The couple quickly had a daughter, born in Ireland, followed by a son, born in London. What Cripps did during the interwar period is a mystery but, by 1941 he was Officer Commanding, Infantry Training Centre, Royal Fusiliers.

Major R.O.R. Kenyon-Slaney
Robert Orlando Rodolph Kenyon-Slaney was born on 13 January, 1892, to Col. Rt. Hon. William Slaney Kenyon-Slaney and Lady Mabel Selina Bridgeman. Kenyon-Slaney’s father had served as a Colonel in the Grenadier Guards, as a Member of Parliament and as a Justice of the Peace. With such large footsteps to trace, the young Kenyon-Slaney set out to make his own mark on the world.

Grenadier Guards Badge  (From Wikipedia)
Grenadier Guards Badge
(From Wikipedia)
He was educated at Eton College (Berkshire) and Christ Church College, Oxford. By 1911, Kenyon-Slaney was a 2nd Lieutenant with the 3rd Grenadier Guards in Chelsea. With the outbreak of war, he was sent to France and earned the rank of Captain. In May 1917, he married Lady Mary Cecilia Rhodesia Hamilton, with whom he had three children.

After the war, Kenyon-Slaney was assigned as Aide-de-Camp to the Governor General of Canada. Returning from Canada, Kenyon-Slaney served as a Justice of the Peace in the mid-1920s and eventually held the office of High Sheriff of Shropshire in the mid-1930s. In 1939, Kenyon-Slaney rejoined the Grenadier Guards as a Major.

Waiting Members
The two waiting members were Lieutenant Colonel Eric Dighton Mackenzie, C.M.G., C.V.O., D.S.O., Officer Commanding, Holding Battalion, Scots Guards and the rather anonymous Major R.C. Alexander, Irish Guards, Guards Depot. Neither officer was required during the court martial but Mackenzie would play a different role in Josef’s saga when the Holding Battalion, Scots Guards carried out Josef’s execution by firing squad on 15 August, 1941.

Ancestry - genealogy resources
British Army List
Commonwealth War Graves Commission
London Gazette
Pegasus Archive - British Airborne Forces
Visitation of England and Wales

04 May 2015

The Court Martial of German Spy Josef Jakobs

In early August, after weeks of preparation, the wheels of the British military establishment finally turned to Josef's court martial. The trial took place on 4 and 5 August, 1941, at the Duke of York's Headquarters, the halls of which bustled with decorated soldiers and bewigged lawyers.

Postcard of Duke of York's Headquarters, Chelsea.
Postcard of Duke of York's Headquarters, Chelsea.
The court martial tribunal was made up of one President, five sitting Members and two waiting members. The Waiting Members were generally not required but were available in case anything should befall one of the Members or if the accused objected to a Member. In Josef's case, the tribunal was composed of:

  Major-General B.T. Wilson, C.B., D.S.O.

  Brigadier F.A.M. Browning, D.S.O., Commander 24th (Guards) Independent Brigade Group
  Col. E.W.S. Balfour, D.S.O., O.B.E., M.C., Commanding Scots Guards
  Lt. Col. H.H. Cripps, D.S.O., Officer Commanding, Infantry Training Centre, Royal Fusiliers
  Major R.O.R. Kenyon-Slaney, Grenadier Guards

Waiting Members
  Lt. Col. E.D. Mackenzie, C.M.G., C.V.O., D.S.O., Officer Commanding, Holding Battalion, Scots Guards
  Major R.C. Alexander, Irish Guards

Signatures of the Judge Advocate, President and four Members of the Court Martial  (National Archives - WO 32/18144)
Signatures of the Judge Advocate, President and four Members of the Court Martial
(National Archives - WO 32/18144)

In addition to these highly decorated soldiers, there were a few men from the legal profession. While the President was in charge of the court martial, the Judge Advocate was there to ensure that the proper legal procedures were followed. Naturally there was an Attorney for the Prosecution as well as an Attorney for the Defence. In Josef's case, the following filled those roles:

Judge Advocate
  C.L. Stirling, Esq, Deputy Judge Advocate General

Attorney for the Prosecution
  Major A.A.H. Marlowe, Judge Advocate General’s Office

Attorney for the Defence
  Captain E.V.E. White, Barrister-at-Law

Finally, there was an Interpreter and a Shorthand Writer.

  Lieutenant W.J. Thomas, Intelligence Corps

Shorthand Writer
  7653216 Quartermaster Sergeant B.A. Balment, R.A.O.C.

Perhaps it's just me, but this long list of names is rather meaningless. Ranks, Surnames, Decorations, Commands - but little else. I want to know something of these men who decided the fate of Josef Jakobs. I want to meet these men in at least some fashion. With a bit of tenacity, most have background stories that can be teased out of the dusty backrooms of history.